Public Health Infobase

Description

Congenital anomalies also known as birth defects, congenital disorders or congenital malformations are usually structural or functional in nature. They are identified prenatally, at birth, or sometimes may only be detected later in infancy. Approximately 50% of all congenital anomalies cannot be linked to a specific cause; however there are some known risk factors which include genetics and environmental contaminants.

Congenital anomalies are the second leading cause of infant mortality, resulting in significant long term impacts on individuals, families and health-care systems. This makes them an important perinatal health issue. Public health strategies such as folic acid fortification and supplementation have proven useful in Canada to prevent neural tube defects. Maintaining national surveillance data is a core role of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and crucial in preventing and controlling congenital anomalies and other adverse perinatal outcomes (1). It serves to provide timely identification of epidemiological trends, estimate the burden of congenital anomalies, shed light on potential risk factors and guide research.

The Congenital Anomalies data tool was developed by the Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (CCASS) to present prevalence rates, temporal trends and certain factors associated with congenital anomalies in Canada, using data from the Discharge Abstract Database of the Canadian Institute for Health Information. This resource is a collaborative effort between the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System’s External Advisory Committee and the Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance Provincial and Territorial Network.

The data presented here provides an overview of 39 selected congenital anomalies (grouped into 12 categories) in Canada (Quebec data are not available for analysis), from 2005 to 2014 using a follow-up period of one year after birth. The table provides a summary of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Canada (ICD-10-CA) codes for each anomaly/group of anomalies. Data for specific measures are presented only if they were thought to be relevant or meaningful for the particular anomaly. Data with small cells (under 5) have either been suppressed or combined. Additional information on specific conditions can be requested through CCASS.

Reference

1. Congenital Anomalies in Canada 2013. A Perinatal Heath Surveillance Report. Public Health Agency of Canada. Ottawa 2013.

Data Map

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AnomalyICD-10-CA codesTrendPregnancy outcomeProvince/TerritoryInfant sexMaternal age
Neural Tube Defects -
Anencephaly and similar anomalies Q00 - - -
Spina bifida without anencephaly Q05 if not Q00.0 - -
Encephalocele Q01 - -
Other central nervous system defects - -
Hydrocephaly Q03 - - - -
Microcephaly Q02 - - - -
Arhinencephaly/Holoprosencephaly Q04.1, Q04.2 - - -
Selected sense organ defects - - - -
Anophthalmos/Microphthalmos Q11.0, Q11.1, Q11.2 - - - -
Anotia/Microtia Q16.0, Q17.2 - - - -
Choanal atresia Q30.0 - - - -
Selected congenital heart defects - - -
Common truncus Q20.0 - - - -
Transposition of great vessels Q20.1, Q20.3, Q20.5 - -
Endocardial cushion defects/AVSD Q21.2 - - - -
Tetralogy of Fallot Q21.3 - -
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Q23.4 - -
Coarctation of aorta Q25.1 - - - -
Oro-facial clefts - - -
Cleft palate only Q35 (excluding Q35.7) - -
Cleft lip only Q36 - - -
Cleft lip with /without cleft palate Q36, Q37 -
Selected gastrointestinal defects - -
Oesophageal atresia/stenosis, tracheoesophageal fistula Q39.0-Q39.4 - - - -
Small intestine absence/atresia/stenosis Q41 - - - -
Ano-rectal absence/atresia/stenosis Q42.0-Q42.3 - - - -
Hirschsprung disease Q43.1 - - - -
Atresia of bile ducts Q44.2 - - - -
Selected urinary tract defects - -
Renal agenesis Q60.0-Q60.2 -
Cystic kidney Q61.1-Q61.5, Q61.8, Q61.9
Bladder and cloacal exstrophy Q64.1 - - -
Lower urinary tract obstruction Q64.2, Q64.3 - - -
Selected genital anomalies - - - - -
Cryptorchidism/undescended testes Q53.1, Q53.2, Q53.9 - - - -
Hypospadias Q54 excluding Q54.4 - - -
Epispadias Q64.0 - - - -
Indeterminate sex Q56 - - - -
Limb deficiency defects Q71-Q73 (an infant with more than one of these Q codes is only counted once) - -
Diaphragmatic hernia Q79.0 -
Selected abdominal wall defects - - - -
Omphalocele/Exomphalos Q79.2 - - -
Gastroschisis Q79.3 - - -
Selected chromosomal defects - - - -
Down Syndrome Q90 -
Trisomy 13 (Patau) Q91.4-Q91.7 -
Trisomy 18 (Edwards) Q91.0-Q91.3 -
Turner syndrome Q96 - - -
Date modified:
2017-11-30