Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

The Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework (PMHSIF) provides information on positive mental health outcomes and its associated risk and protective factors. Positive mental health is a state of well-being that allows us to feel, think, and act in ways that enhance our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face.

The PMHSIF contains a core set of indicators grouped by positive mental health outcomes and four key domains as listed below. For each measure in the PMHSIF, pan-Canadian estimates are available for adults aged 18 and older along with breakdowns by key demographic and socioeconomic variables. Frameworks for youth and child populations are under development.

For a quick overview of the PMHSIF click on any of the domains listed below. A list of all measures within the domain, for adults aged 18 and older, with their corresponding pan-Canadian estimates, will unfold. Additionally, a detailed description of each measure can be obtained by clicking on the “Description” link next to each measure. The most current version of the PMHSIF's Quick Stats is also available in a printer-friendly format.

The “Data Tool” button situated below brings you to a selection tool that provides access to all available data breakdowns for every indicator in the PMHSIF.

Use the PMHSIF Data Tool
PMHSIF's Quick Stats is also available in a printer-friendly format (PDF document). For an accessible equivalent, please use the table below.
PMHSIF's Quick Stats is also available in a printer-friendly format (PDF document)

Quick Stats Overview

For more information about each indicator, click on the domains below:

Positive Mental Health Outcomes
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Self-rated Mental Health Adult (18 + years) % of population who self-rate their mental health as “excellent” or “very good” 64.9% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who self-rate their mental health as “excellent” or “very good”
Self-rated Mental Health Youth (12-17 years) % of population who self-rate their mental health as “excellent” or “very good” 75.40% CCHS (2014) Description of % of population who self-rate their mental health as “excellent” or “very good”
Happiness Adult (18 + years) % of population who report being happy "every day" or "almost every day" 81.9% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who report being happy "every day" or "almost every day"
Happiness Youth (12-17 years) % of population who report being usually “happy and interested in life” 77.70% CCHS (2014) Description of % of population who report being usually “happy and interested in life”
Life Satisfaction Adult (18 + years) % of population who report being satisfied with life "every day" or "almost every day" 82.1% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who report being satisfied with life "every day" or "almost every day"
Life Satisfaction Adult (18 + years) Mean life satisfaction rating (0–10 scale) 7.9 CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of Mean life satisfaction rating (0–10 scale)
Life Satisfaction Youth (12-17 years) % of population who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general 47.70% CCHS (2014) Description of % of population who report they are "very satisfied" with their life in general
Life Satisfaction Youth (12-17 years) Mean life satisfaction rating (0–10 scale) among grade 6–10 students 7.34 HBSC (2013–2014) Description of Mean life satisfaction rating (0–10 scale) among grade 6–10 students
Psychological Well-being Adult (18 + years) % of population who have high psychological well-being 69.6% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who have high psychological well-being
Psychological Well-being Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–12 students who have high autonomy 74.70% CSTADS (2014–2015) Description of % of grade 6–12 students who have high autonomy
Psychological Well-being Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–12 students who have high competence 81.50% CSTADS (2014–2015) Description of % of grade 6–12 students who have high competence
Social Well-being Adult (18 + years) % of population who report that they “very strongly” or “somewhat strongly” belong to their local community 62.4% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who report that they “very strongly” or “somewhat strongly” belong to their local community
Social Well-being Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–12 students who have high relatedness 83.10% CSTADS (2014–2015) Description of % of grade 6–12 students who have high relatedness
Individual Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Resilience Adult (18 + years) In development NA NA NA
Resilience Youth (12-17 years) In development N/A N/A NA
Coping Adult (18 + years) % of population who report a high level of coping 56.9% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who report a high level of coping
Coping Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of coping 43.30% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of coping
Nurturing Childhood Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report having dinner together with their family five or more times per week 69.80% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report having dinner together with their family five or more times per week
Nurturing Childhood Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report their family is willing to help them make decisions 74.20% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report their family is willing to help them make decisions
Control and Self-efficacy Adult (18 + years) % of population who report a high level of perceived control over life chances 41.6% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description of % of population who report a high level of perceived control over life chances
Control and Self-efficacy Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of perceived control over life chances 45% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years who report a high level of perceived control over life chances
Violence Adult (18 + years) % of population who experienced any of three types of child abuse before age 16 (physical abuse, sexual abuse or exposure to intimate partner violence) 32.3% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who experienced any of three types of child abuse before age 16 (physical abuse, sexual abuse or exposure to intimate partner violence)
Violence Adult (18 + years) % of population who report being the victim of physical or sexual assault in the past 12 months 3.9% GSS Victimization (2014) Description of % of population who report being the victim of physical or sexual assault in the past 12 months
Violence Adult (18 + years) % of population who report being the victim of spousal violence in the past 5 years 2.7% GSS Victimization (2014) Description of % of population who report being the victim of spousal violence in the past 5 years
Violence Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they were in a physical fight at least once in the past 12 months 28.30% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report they were in a physical fight at least once in the past 12 months
Violence Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–12 students who report they have been bullied by other students in the past 30 days 25.10% CSTADS (2014–2015) Description of % of grade 6–12 students who report they have been bullied by other students in the past 30 days
Violence Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–12 students who report they have bullied other students in the past 30 days 14% CSTADS (2014–2015) Description of % of grade 6–12 students who report they have bullied other students in the past 30 days
Health Status Adult (18 + years) % of population who self-rate their health as “excellent” or “very good” 58.6% CCHS (2013) Description of % of population who self-rate their health as “excellent” or “very good”
Health Status Adult (18 + years) % of population with no or mild disability 68.1% CCHS (2013) Description of % of population with no or mild disability
Health Status Youth (12-17 years) % of population who self-rate their health as “excellent” or “very good” 70% CCHS (2014) Description of % of population who self-rate their health as “excellent” or “very good”
Health Status Youth (12-17 years) % of population with no disability or mild disability 70.10% CCHS (2014) Description of % of population with no disability or mild disability
Physical Activity Adult (18 + years) % of population who are “active” or “moderately active” during their leisure time based on self-reported data 53.8% CCHS (2013) Description of % of population who are “active” or “moderately active” during their leisure time based on self-reported data
Physical Activity Adult (18 + years) % of population aged 18–79 years who accumulate at least 150 minutes per week of moderate or vigorous physical activity in 10-minute bouts based on measured data 13.6% CHMS (2009–2011) Description of % of population aged 18–79 years who accumulate at least 150 minutes per week of moderate or vigorous physical activity in 10-minute bouts based on measured data
Physical Activity Youth (12-17 years) % of population who meet physical activity recommendations by accumulating at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day 4.30% CHMS (2009–2013) Description of % of population who meet physical activity recommendations by accumulating at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day
Substance Use Adult (18 + years) % of population whose reported alcohol consumption falls within the low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines 85.0% CADUMS (2012) Description of % of population whose reported alcohol consumption falls within the low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines
Substance Use Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 9 and 10 students who report they have had 5 or more drinks (4 or more for girls) on one occasion, once a month or more in the past year 17.70% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 9 and 10 students who report they have had 5 or more drinks (4 or more for girls) on one occasion, once a month or more in the past year
Substance Use Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report drinking alcohol every week or more 6.50% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report drinking alcohol every week or more
Substance Use Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 7–12 students who have used marijuana or cannabis in the past 12 months 16.50% CSTADS (2014–2015) Description of % of grade 7–12 students who have used marijuana or cannabis in the past 12 months
Spirituality Adult (18 + years) % of population who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are “very important” or “somewhat important” in their daily life 62.9% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are “very important” or “somewhat important” in their daily life
Spirituality Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are “very important” or “somewhat important” in their daily life 45.70% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years who report that religious or spiritual beliefs are “very important” or “somewhat important” in their daily life
Family Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Family Relationship Quality and Connectedness Adult (18 + years) In development NA NA NA
Family Relationship Quality and Connectedness Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report it is "very easy" or "easy" to talk to their parents about things that really bother them 83.20% HBSC (2013–2014) NA
Family Relationship Quality and Connectedness Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who have high communication in their family 58.30% HBSC (2013–2014) NA
Parenting Style Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report their parents trust them 77.30% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report their parents trust them
Parenting Style Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report their parents expect too much from them 28.70% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report their parents expect too much from them
Family Health Status and Substance Use by Family Members Adult (18 + years) % of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs 39.8% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs
Family Health Status and Substance Use by Family Members Adult (18 + years) % of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs who report that their life is affected “a lot” or “some” by their family member's problems 35.6% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs who report that their life is affected “a lot” or “some” by their family member's problems
Family Health Status and Substance Use by Family Members Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs 29.40% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs
Family Health Status and Substance Use by Family Members Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs who report that their life is affected “a lot” or “some” by their family member’s problems 26.50% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years with a family member who has problems with their emotions, mental health or use of alcohol or drugs who report that their life is affected “a lot” or “some” by their family member’s problems
Household Composition Adult (18 + years) % of population who live with spouse or partner 70.2% CCHS (2013) Description of % of population who live with spouse or partner
Household Composition Adult (18 + years) % of population who live in a lone parent household 8.9% CCHS (2013) Description of % of population who live in a lone parent household
Household Composition Adult (18 + years) % of population who live alone 15.6% CCHS (2013) Description of % of population who live alone
Household Composition Youth (12-17 years) % of population who live in a lone parent household 18% CCHS (2014) Description of % of population who live in a lone parent household
Household Composition Youth (12-17 years) % of population who live in a two parent household 69.70% CCHS (2014) Description of % of population who live in a two parent household
Household Income Adult (18 + years) % of the total Canadian population, all ages, below low-income cut-off after tax 8.8% SLID (2011) Description of % of the total Canadian population, all ages, below low-income cut-off after tax
Household Income Youth (12-17 years) % of population under the age of 18 years who live below low-income cut-offs after tax 8.50% CIS (2014) Description of % of population under the age of 18 years who live below low-income cut-offs after tax
Community Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Community Involvement Adult (18 + years) % of population who are members of, or participate in at least one recreational or professional organization, group, association or club 63.6% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description of % of population who are members of, or participate in at least one recreational or professional organization, group, association or club
Community Involvement Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who are involved in at least one club or organization 88.90% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who are involved in at least one club or organization
Social Networks Adult (18 + years) % of population who report having no close friends or family members 6.1% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description of % of population who report having no close friends or family members
Social Networks Adult (18 + years) % of population who report having 1–5 close friends or family members 59.2% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description of % of population who report having 1–5 close friends or family members
Social Networks Adult (18 + years) % of population who report having 6 or more close friends or family members 34.7% GSS Social Networks (2008) Description of % of population who report having 6 or more close friends or family members
Social Networks Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they can count on their friends when things go wrong 74.30% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report they can count on their friends when things go wrong
Social Networks Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who have friends to share joys and sorrows with 79.20% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who have friends to share joys and sorrows with
Social Support Adult (18 + years) % of population who report high level of perceived social support 94.1% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population who report high level of perceived social support
Social Support Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years with a high level of perceived social support 95.40% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years with a high level of perceived social support
School Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they feel they belong at their school 63.20% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report they feel they belong at their school
Workplace Environment Adult (18 + years) % of employed population aged 18–75 years experiencing high job strain 14.8% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of employed population aged 18–75 years experiencing high job strain
Neighbourhood Social Environment Adult (18 + years) % of population who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other 86.6% GSS Victimization (2009) Description of % of population who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other
Neighbourhood Social Environment Adult (18 + years) % of population who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is “a very big problem” or “a fairly big problem” 13.4% GSS Victimization (2009) Description of % of population who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is “a very big problem” or “a fairly big problem”
Neighbourhood Social Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report they trust the people in the area where they live 60.20% HBSC (2013–2014) Description of % of grade 6–10 students who report they trust the people in the area where they live
Neighbourhood Social Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other 90.40% GSS Victimization (2014) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years who report that their neighbourhood is a place where neighbours help each other
Neighbourhood Social Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of population aged 15–17 years who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is “a very big problem” or “a fairly big problem” 6.30% GSS Victimization (2014) Description of % of population aged 15–17 years who report that social disorder in their neighbourhood is “a very big problem” or “a fairly big problem”
Neighbourhood Built Environment Adult (18 + years) In development NA NA NA
Neighbourhood Built Environment Youth (12-17 years) % of grade 6–10 students who report there are places such as recreation centres, parks and shopping centres to spend free time in the area where they live 74.20% HBSC (2013–2014) NA
Society Determinants
Indicator Group Life Course Group Indicator Measure(s) Latest Data Source (Year) Description
Inequality Adult (18 + years) In development NA NA NA
Inequality Youth (12-17 years) In development N/A N/A NA
Discrimination and Stigma Adult (18 + years) % of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance 32.4% CCHS (2013) Discrimination Rapid Response Description of % of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on characteristics such as gender, race, age, or appearance
Discrimination and Stigma Adult (18 + years) % of population with a mental health problem who report being affected by negative opinions or unfair treatment, due to their mental health problem 21.0% CCHS Mental Health (2012) Description of % of population with a mental health problem who report being affected by negative opinions or unfair treatment, due to their mental health problem
Discrimination and Stigma Youth (12-17 years) % of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on things such as gender, race, age or appearance 39.10% CCHS Discrimination Rapid Response (2013) Description of % of population who experienced unfair treatment at least once in the past year based on things such as gender, race, age or appearance
Political Participation Adult (18 + years) % of registered electors who voted in the 2011 federal election 61.1% Elections Canada 2012 Description of % of registered electors who voted in the 2011 federal election

Notes

  1. Data Sources (Abbreviations): Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS); Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS); Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health (CCHS-MH); Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS); General Social Survey (GSS); Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID);
  2. “In development” refers to measures that are under development either because a data source is currently not available or more research has to be done in order to identify a promising measure and data source.
  3. Suggested Citation: Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention, Public Health Agency of Canada (2016). Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, 2016 Edition.
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